Linux Tips(7)

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1. CloudStack Issue

On ubuntu1404/1604, the template should enable HVM.
Its partition size should less than the primary storage size.
Password reset issue: Ubuntu1604, failed.

Ubuntu14.04 startup too slow, because of ntp, remove it sudo update-rc.d -f ntp remove

2. Ubuntu16.04 cloudstack-pass issue

The reset-password script is located as /etc/init.d/cloud-set-guest-password, then we could do following configurations:

Remove the services via:

# update-rc.d -f cloud-set-guest-password remove
# cp /etc/init.d/cloud-setup-guest-password /usr/bin/
# chmod 777 /usr/bin/cloud-setup-guest-password

Before because you set update-rc.d cloud-set-guest-password defaults 98, so first you should remove it.

Then Create a systemd service as /lib/systemd/system/cloudpassword.service:

[Unit]
Description=cloudpass container

[Service]
Type=idle
Restart=always
ExecStart=/usr/bin/cloud-set-guest-password
ExecStop=/usr/bin/echo hello

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Enable the service via:

# systemctl enable cloudpassword

After the network is online:

# systemctl enable systemd-networkd-wait-online.service

The steps could refers to another article.

3. XenServer Timezone

Switch to UTC time:

# cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/UTC /etc/localtime

4. Gitbook serve ports

Listening on other ports:

$ gitbook --port 14001 serve

5. Quickstart For ShadowSocks

Install and configuration steps are listed as following(Ubuntu16.04):

# apt-get install python-pip
# pip install --upgrade pip
# pip install shadowsocks
# touch /etc/shadowsocks.json
{
"server":"1xx.xxx.xxx.xxx",
"server_port":19175,
"local_address":"127.0.0.1",
"local_port":1080,
"password":"XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXx",
"timeout":300,
"method":"aes-256-cfb",
"fast_open":false
}
# vim /etc/rc.local
ssserver -c /etc/shadowsocks.json -d start

Now you could continue to configure your shadowsocks client side.

6. MariaDB In Docker

Connect to existing docker-composed mariadb instance via following command:

sudo docker run -it -v /var/download/sbt/lili:/var/lib/mysql --link mariadb:mymariadb --net lilimarleen_default mariadb:latest /bin/bash
root@5d7eadc81b9e:/# mysql -h172.18.0.3 -P3306 -uroot -pexample
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 35
Server version: 10.1.20-MariaDB-1~jessie mariadb.org binary distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> \q
Bye

-v is for using local volume for restoring aims.
--link is for linking to existing instance.
-net could be get via docker net list.

7. cdn speedup

For speed-up my blog, I changed the fonts/css from the template’s default location to http://www.bootcdn.cn/?, this cdn’s speed is pretty good, the speed has been greatly improved.

8. git diff

First use git log for getting all of the commit history, then you could get the md5 for each commitment, git diff md51 md52 you could easily get the differences.

9. qemu issue

When meeting guest has not initialize the display (yet), do following:

$ sudo qemu-system-x86_64 -net nic -net user,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22 -hda ./test.qcow2 -boot d -cdrom /mnt/CentOS-7-x86_64-Everything-1611.iso -m 2048 --enable-kvm -vga virtio

-vga virtio solves this issue.

10. bashrc execution

Run bashrc at ArchLinux:

$ vim ~/.bash_profile
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
  . ~/.bashrc
fi
$ vim ~/.bashrc

Then all of the items in .bashrc could be executed.

11. Shared bash history

Add following lines in to ~/.bashrc:

HISTSIZE=9000
HISTFILESIZE=$HISTSIZE
HISTCONTROL=ignorespace:ignoredups

history() {
  _bash_history_sync
  builtin history "$@"
}

_bash_history_sync() {
  builtin history -a         #1
  HISTFILESIZE=$HISTSIZE     #2
  builtin history -c         #3
  builtin history -r         #4
}

PROMPT_COMMAND=_bash_history_sync

12. ArchLinux virtual network start failed

Issue:

when I start a virtual network named 'default' (created by libvirt), it occur that:
"Error starting network 'default': internal error: Failed to initialize a valid firewall backend".

Solution:

$ sudo pacman -S  ebtables dnsmasq
$ sudo systemctl restart libvirtd

then you could get your libvirtd networking work properly.

13. Network Manager Configuration

https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Networking/Bridging

14. Enable vncserver in firewalld

Manually enable the vnc-server service, then you could use vncviewer for connecting the vnc server in ArchLinux:

# firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=vnc-server

Related commands:

List services:

# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-services

Get all of the listed services:

# firewall-cmd --get-services

Get all of the zones:

# firewall-cmd --get-active-zones
# firewall-cmd --get-zones
# firewall-cmd --get-default-zone

15. Execute mysql command

Execute like following:

mysql -u $user -p$passsword -Bse "command1;command2;....;commandn"

16. Generate the md5 encrypted passwd

Generate md5 encrypted passwd using passlib:

$ sudo pip2 install passlib
$ python2 -c "from passlib.hash import sha512_crypt; import getpass; print sha512_crypt.encrypt(getpass.getpass())"

17. Quickly setup nginx

In archlinux, do following:

$ sudo pacman -S nginx
$ sudo vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
        location / {
            root   /media/sdb;
            index  index.html index.htm;
	    autoindex on;
        }
$ sudo systemctl enable nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

Then you could see the nginx running on your server.

18. minikube quickstart on archlinux

Install and running minikube via:

$ yaourt minikube
$ wget https://github.com/dhiltgen/docker-machine-kvm/releases/download/v0.7.0/docker-machine-driver-kvm
$ sudo mv docker-machine-driver-kvm /usr/local/bin
$ sudo chmod 777 /usr/local/bin/*
$ sudo minikube start --vm-driver kvm
$ curl -Lo kubectl https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.5.3/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl && chmod +x kubectl && sudo mv kubectl /usr/local/bin/

Then you could begin using minikube.

19. Golang building

When using hugo for building, the travis-ci complains:

enc.SetIndent undefined

Solved via edit the .travis.yml file

go:
-    - 1.6
+    - 1.7

Dependency on golang 1.7 solves the problem.

20. Auto start default gw

Start the default network for virsh via:

$ sudo virsh net-start default

21. ArchLinux fonts

Install fonts via:

$ sudo  pacman -S adobe-source-han-sans-cn-fonts adobe-source-han-sans-tw-fonts

And mac fonts via:

$ yaourt ttf-mac-fonts

22. Detect Windows

Detect Windows via:

$ sudo apt-get install os-prober
$ sudo os-prober
$ sudo update-grub

23. Upgrade Shadowsocks

UPgrade the shadowsocks, so you could get more powerful tools..

$  pip install --upgrade pi
$ sudo pip install --upgrade shadowsocks

24. vagrant ssh

The configuration of vagrant ssh could be viewd via:

$ vagrant ssh-config

25. k8s iptables issue

Add this service named iptableslast.service, enable and start the service, then system will run iptables once for setup the rules.

[Unit]
Description=iptables last rule

[Service]
Type=idle
Restart=on-failure
ExecStart=/sbin/iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
ExecStop=/usr/bin/echo hello

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

26. Install vagrant plugins(specified version)

Specified the version of plugins:

vagrant plugin install --plugin-version  0.0.37 vagrant-libvirt

27. nested kvm in CentOS7

Enable it via following commands:

[root@dlp ~]# vi /etc/modprobe.d/kvm-nested.conf
# create new
options kvm_intel nested=1
[root@dlp ~]# modprobe -r kvm_intel # unload
[root@dlp ~]# modprobe kvm_intel # reload again
[root@dlp ~]# cat /sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/nested 
Y# just enabled

28. vagrant-libvirt issue

The eth1 won’t be startup, so manually execute service network restart in CentOS7.

29. Save/Load Docker images

https://gist.github.com/hydra1983/22b2bed38b4f5f56caa87c830c96378d

Commandline:

$ ./docker_images.sh save_images
$ ./docker_images.sh load_images

30. yum download src rpms

yum download the packages src via:

# yum install yum-utils
# yumdownloader --source mypkg

30. Quickstart VPS(CentOS6)

Lizcat, since the centos 6 won’t support docker well, switches to Ubuntu

# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/epel-6.repo
# yum install -y python-pip wget

31, Downgrade packages in archlinux

via yaourt downgrade, then downgrade the package name.

32. Issues for Gzlib

clearing the cookie, then you could login, or you won’t be logined into the system.

33. Install haroopad

Via following steps:

解压haroopad-v0.13.1-x64.tar.gz
cd /usr/local/src
sudo mkdir haroopad
sudo tar -zxvf haroopad-v0.13.1-x64.tar.gz -C haroopad

之后会出现如下内容
control.tar.gz
data.tar.gz
debian-binary

解压 data.tar.gz,并将其子目录下边的内容拷贝到 “/” 目录下
tar zxvf data.tar.gz
sudo cp -r ./usr /

解压control.tar.gz,并赋予755权限
tar zxf control.tar.gz
chmod 755 postinst
sudo ./postinst

34. hostname without restart

Simply try hostname YourNewHostName, it could immediately change your hostname, without a restart.

35. Make partition larger than 2T

Your should use parted rather than fdisk, cause parted could support gpt mode.

# parted /dev/sdb     #使用parted来对GPT磁盘操作,进入交互式模式
(parted) mklabel gpt   # 将MBR磁盘格式化为GPT
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 0% 100%    将所有容量分为一个主分区
(parted) p    #打印当前分区
(parted) q    #退出

36. Oracle DB Installation issue

On pdksh missing.

Solution

Solution for 11.2.0.3 64-bit (x86-64)

If you have downloaded the 11.2.0.3 media from My Oracle Support (MOS) and extracted the software to <path>/database, do the following:

Change directory to <path>/database/stage/cvu/cv/admin
Backup cvu_config cp cvu_config backup_cvu_config
Edit cvu_config and change the following line CV_ASSUME_DISTID=OEL4 to CV_ASSUME_DISTID=OEL6
Save the updated cvu_config file
Install the 11.2.0.3 software using:
<path>/database/runInstaller
cd <path>/database
./runInstaller
OUI should now perform the OEL6 prerequisite checks (which are identical to the RHEL6 prerequisite checks) and no longer report that packages elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97 and pdksh-5.2.14 are missing

37. Ansible jinja issue

Changed from

  register: check_powershell5
  when: "{{ ansible_PSVersionTable.Major|int < 5 }}"
  tags: win_powershell

to

  register: check_powershell5
  when: ansible_PSVersionTable.Major|int < 5 
  tags: win_powershell

could solve the jinjia problem, when statements should not include jinja2 templating delimiters such as {{ }} or {% %}.

38. Docker dm.basesize

For building larger docker image, you have to enable dm.basesize, however the docker’s new version have to specify more parameters, the example is listed as:

ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd -s devicemapper --storage-opt dm.basesize=50G --registry-mirror=http://1a653205.m.daocloud.io -H fd://

39. Samba issue

Add samba user and set its username/passwd via:

# useradd xxx
# smbpasswd -a xxx

40. Customized ssh key for vagrant

Add following definition into the vagrantfile:

config.ssh.private_key_path = "/home/joseph/.ssh/id_rsa"

41. Manually setup runner

When the runner is not set, do enable this manually for project:

/images/2017_06_22_14_33_16_645x420.jpg

42. tar without folder prefix

You could do via following ways:

cd src/
tar czf ${topdir}/SOURCES/${PKGNAME}.tar.gz $1
cd ..

Or:

tar czf ${topdir}/SOURCES/${PKGNAME}.tar.gz -C src/ .

43. 7zip split files

Using following command:

# 7z a -tzip -v1024m secondnode

Recover:

# 7z e xxx.zip.001

44. rhel download

http://linuxfly.org/post/659/

45. performance

hald introduction:

https://systembash.com/disabling-the-hald-addon-storage-service-on-centosredhat/

The hald – Hardware Access Layer Daemon – runs several processes in order to keep track of what hardware is installed on your system. This includes polling USB Drives and ‘hot-swap’ devices to check for changes along with a host of other tasks.

You might see it running on your system as follows:

2474 ? S 0:00 \_ hald-runner
2481 ? S 0:00 \_ hald-addon-acpi: listening on acpid socket /var/run/acpid.socket
2487 ? S 0:00 \_ hald-addon-keyboard: listening on /dev/input/event0
2495 ? S 41:47 \_ hald-addon-storage: polling /dev/hdc

If your system is static and the devices do not change, you can actually disable this service using a policy entry.

Create a file in your policy directory, for example /etc/hal/fdi/policy/99-custom.fdi. Add the text:

Solved(completely disable hald):

https://zhuqy.wordpress.com/2011/04/07/disable-the-hald-addon-storage-completely/

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<deviceinfo version="0.2">
	<device>
		<match key="storage.removable" bool="true">
			<remove key="info.addons" type="strlist">hald-addon-storage</remove>
		</match>
	</device>
</deviceinfo>

46. vagrant and ansible

After created vagrant, use ansible the following way:

$ ansible --private-key=~/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key -u vagrant ...

for testing module ping/command, etc.

47. clean deb pkgs

via apt-get clean, then you could get the clean directory.

https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-deploy-wordpress-with-shipyard-on-ubuntu-14-04

Startup:

https://juejin.im/entry/588940fc2f301e0069b2397d

49. Cowsay fortune

Add following items in your ~/.zshrc, then cowsay will always say blablabla:

if [ -x /usr/bin/cowsay -a -x /usr/bin/fortune ]; then
    fortune | cowsay
fi

50. EDRAW

Good software for drawing pictures.

51. graphviz

http://dockone.io/article/2495

52. Memory Checking

http://blog.csdn.net/beckdon/article/details/36174925

use last reboot for checking the reboot reason.

use cat /var/log/messages | more for knowing the detailed reason.

53. virsh net-autostart

Previously I found my virsh network default won’t startup automatically, so I add one tips in ~/.config/awesome/rc.lua, but yesterday I found one tip for adding the default network auto-start:

$ sudo virsh net-autostart default

So from now on my default networking for libvirt will start automatically every time.

54. Capture with filename in xclip

I changed my mycapscr to following, so I could save 3 seconds for each screenshot.

scrot -s '%Y_%m_%d_%H_%M_%S_$wx$h.jpg' -e 'mv $f ~/capscr/'
ls -lt ~/capscr | sed -n 2p | awk {'print $9'} | xclip -r

55. Convert from vagrant to kvm

First you have to find the vmdk files of vagrant, then convert it from vmdk to qcow2:

$ sudo qemu-img convert -f vmdk -O qcow2 box-disk001.vmdk gitlab.qcow2

The gitlab.qcow2 is the one you want, enjoy it.

56. QuickStart For DCE

Install your own dce:

# gzip -dc dce-2.6.0.tar.gz | docker load
# bash -c "$(docker run --rm daocloud.io/daocloud/dce:2.6.0 install)"

57. vimdiff horizon

Press ctrl+w, then J

58. apt-get specify version

First you should use apt-cache policy xxxx to get all of the possible version of this software, then, you specify the version in following command like:

# sudo apt-get install gparted=0.16.1-1

59. qemu-kvm location in centos

In /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm.

60. Setup hostname

via nmtui in centos7 you could setup the hostname in centos7.

61. libvirt static IP

Via virsh net-dumpxml>abc.xml ; vim abc.xml; virsh net-define abc.xml, you could edit your xml like following:

<ip address="192.168.122.1" netmask="255.255.255.0">
  <dhcp>
    <range start="192.168.122.100" end="192.168.122.254" />
    <host mac="00:16:3e:77:e2:ed" name="foo.example.com" ip="192.168.122.10" />
    <host mac="00:16:3e:3e:a9:1a" name="bar.example.com" ip="192.168.122.11" />
  </dhcp>
</ip>

62. chromium passwd generator

/images/2017_08_23_14_11_10_622x322.jpg

64. rancheros set registry

Set the parameter of docker via following command:

$ sudo ros config get rancher.docker.insecure_registry
$ sudo ros config set rancher.docker.insecure_registry ["192.168.124.211:8088"]

more detailed parameters could be found at:

http://rancher.com/docs/os/v1.0/en/configuration/docker/

65. canary build/test

In software testing, a canary is a push of programming code changes to a small group of end users who are unaware that they are receiving new code. Because the canary is only distributed to a small number of users, its impact is relatively small and changes can be reversed quickly should the new code prove to be buggy. Canary tests, which are often automated, are run after testing in a sandbox environment has been completed.

Real meaning:

煤矿工人过去带着金丝雀下井。这种鸟对危险气体的敏感度超过人。如果金丝雀死了,矿工便知道井下有危险气体,需要撤离。」

原来 Canary build 是这个意思

66. docker cp

Directly copy from container to host via:

# docker cp 0a63783b716a:/root/d  /tmp/

67. xrdp display error

When some window displayed error, using 24-bit color.

68. e-sata and udev

For using e-sata and udiskie, you have to change the following for using properly:

➜  rules.d pwd
/etc/udev/rules.d
➜  rules.d cat 99-udisks2.rules
# UDISKS_FILESYSTEM_SHARED
# ==1: mount filesystem to a shared directory (/media/VolumeName)
# ==0: mount filesystem to a private directory (/run/media/$USER/VolumeName)
# See udisks(8)
ENV{ID_FS_USAGE}=="filesystem|other|crypto", ENV{UDISKS_FILESYSTEM_SHARED}="1"

Thus your disk will be mounted under in /media rather than in /run/media/xxx, this means your directoy will be seemed as shared, so your libvirt daemon will access it properly.

69. dashboard issue

dashbaord v1.6.2 has a bug that you could not get heapster info.

t is solved. This is a cluster issue. In 1.6.2 dashboard was building wrong path to heapster and there was always the same error that health check to heapster was failing because dashboard could not access it.

70. Write bat issues

Change new line from unix to windows:

# unix2dos xxxx

Change filename from UTF-8 to GBK:

# convmv -f zh_CN.UTF-8 -t  GBK -r --notest ./

Change file content from UTF-8 to GBK:

# enca -L zh_CN -x GBK *

Refers to :

http://blog.csdn.net/a280606790/article/details/8504133

71. gitlab change ip

When changing ip in gitlab server, do following steps:

The correct place in an Omnibus install is:

/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb
    external_url 'http://gitlab.example.com'
Finally, you'll need to execute sudo gitlab-ctl reconfigure and sudo gitlab-ctl restart so the changes apply.

72. Changing IP using bat

Read from the file, and generate the bat file with each person’s own ip address setting.

#!/bin/sh
while read line
do
	#echo $line
	NAME=`echo $line|awk {'print $1'}`
#	echo $NAME
	IP=`echo $line|awk {'print $4'}`
#	echo $IP
	ORG=`echo $line|awk {'print $2'}`
#	echo $ORG
        echo -n 'netsh interface ipv4 delete dnsservers "本地连接" all'>${NAME}_${ORG}.bat
	echo 'netsh interface ipv4 set address name="本地连接" static 192.168.103.'${IP} '255.255.255.0 192.168.103.1'>>${NAME}_${ORG}.bat
done<inhuajing.txt

73. Windows uptime

View windows uptime via:

systeminfo

74. Timezone change in CentOS

Via following commands:

# timedatectl set-timezone America/Chicago
Verify new settings by typing the following two commands:
# date
# ls -l /etc/localtime

75. Forwarding to vm traffic

In host machine, do following, then you could forwarding the traffic from host machine 2222 to vm(192.168.122.203)’s 22 port.

$sudo iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 2222 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.122.203:22
$sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -p tcp --dport 22 -d 192.168.122.203 -j SNAT --to 192.168.122.1

76. Install htpasswd

Install htpasswd in archlinux via yaourt apache-tools.

77. Write back to Write Through

Via following command:

/images/2017_10_18_16_05_30_1283x314.jpg

78. archlinux offline

https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=229502

79. git

git file too large